Guide to Oracle SQL (Computer Science 4 All Version)

Introduction to Databases

Wikipedia defines a database as "an organized collection of data. It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies."

A schema is "its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS). The term "schema" refers to the organization of data as a blueprint of how the database is constructed (divided into database tables in the case of relational databases).

A table is a collection of related data held in a structured format within a database. It consists of fields (columns), and rows. In relational databases and flat file databases, a table is a set of data elements (values) using a model of vertical columns (identifiable by name) and horizontal rows, the cell being the unit where a row and column intersect. Table (database) - Wikipedia

Figure 1-1: Putty Settings

After logging in to your account you can use the Unix shell commands to manage your files.

Unix Commands

Your files are stored in a directory (folder) which is setup and named a certain way so that the web server can find your files when someone enters your URL in their browser address window or clicks a link that goes to your web page. For my examples that directory is called *public_html*. Again, using as an example, the URL of your web site would be:

For example, my URL is:

After logging in to your web server account you need to issue the command 'cd public_html' to change your working directory to your *public_html* folder where the files are stored that will make up your web site.

Your web pages are simple text files that have HTML tags that advise the browser how to render the look of your web page, including any images or hyperlinks are included on your web page. Once you place yourself in your *public_html* folder you can use the *vim* editor to create and modify your files. *vim* is a modified (improved) version of the *vi* editor. It is fairly easy to learn the handful of commands you need to create and maintain the files you'll need for the tasks in this guide. You can use the *man vim* command at the Unix prompt to get helpful information about using the *vim* editor.


You will also need an SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) client for your machine so you can upload any non-text files such as images, media (audio and video), and Java applets. If you are using a Windows machine, I recommend using FileZilla and for a Mac I recommend CyberDuck. Again, using the server as an example, here are the necessary SFTP settings:

Figure 1-2: SFTP Settings


Another method for maintaining your web files is to use an HTML editor on your local machine to create and edit your files and then use one of the above mentioned SFTP clients to upload and download your files to your web server.

This guide is intended for you to learn the HTML, CSS, and JavaScript language syntax. So, I do not recommend using any of the WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) web site editors that create the actual HTML code for you. You will learn more by typing in the HTML, CSS, and JavaScript tags, and commands. Notepad++) is a great text editor for Windows. *Notepad++* has syntax color highlighting for HTML, CSS and JavaScript files. *Notepad++* also has a built-in *NppFTP* plugin that allows you to connect to your web server file space via SFTP so you can edit your files directly on your web server via your Windows machine. Here are the steps:

  1. Click the Plugins menu
  2. Choose: NppFTP
  3. Choose: Show NppFTP Window
  4. Click on the Settings (looks like a gear) icon
  5. Choose: Profile Settings
  6. Click: Add New
  7. Hostname:
  8. Click on the Connection Type:: SFTP
  9. Port: 22
  10. Enter your unknown and your-Banner-id-here-with-a-capital-B
  11. Rename that Profile to: cs4hs
  12. Click: Close
  13. From the (Dis)connect (looks like 2 plugs), chose: cs4hs
Figure 1-3: Notepad++ Settings

If all goes well your file should be listed in the left window.

On your Mac you can use the built-in application *TextEdit* to edit your files and *Fetch* to upload/download your files.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Copyright © 2020 Jim Gerland